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PP:南土所施卫明 山大夏光敏丨ABA充当NO3-传导器激活TaNRT2促NO3-吸收(附NMT实验体系)

转自中关村旭月非损伤微测技术产业联盟


期刊:plant physiology
主题:ABA充当NO3-传导器激活TaNRT2促NO3-吸收
标题:TaANR1-TaBG1 and TaWabi5-TaNRT2s/NARs link ABA metabolism and nitrate acquisition in wheat roots
影响因子:6.305
检测指标:NO3-流速
检测样品:小麦根(分别距离根尖端0.05、0.1、0.3、0.5、1.5、3、5、10、20、30 mm的位点)
NO3-流实验处理方法:15天的小麦幼苗,在0.2mM KNO3/0.2mM KNO3+50uM ABA处理1小时
NO3-流实验测试液成份:未写明
作者:中科院土壤所施卫明、王萌,山东大学夏光敏

英文摘要

Nitrate is the preferred form of nitrogen for most plants, acting both as a nutrient and a signaling molecule. However, the components and regulatory factors governing nitrate uptake in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the world's most important crop species, have remained unclear, largely due to the complexity of its hexaploid genome.

Here, based on recently released whole-genome information for bread wheat, the high-affinity nitrate transporter 2 (NRT2) and the nitrate-assimilation-related (NAR) gene family are characterized. We show that ABA-GE deconjugation is stimulated in bread wheat roots by nitrate resupply following nitrate withdrawal, leading to enhanced root-tissue ABA accumulation, and that this enhancement, in turn, affects the expression of root-type NRT2/NAR genes. TaANR1 is shown to regulate nitrate-mediated ABA accumulation by directly activating TaBG1, while TaWabi5 is involved in ABA-mediated NO3- induction of NRT2/NAR genes.

Building on previous evidence establishing ABA involvement in the developmental response to high-nitrate stress, our study suggests that ABA also contributes to the optimisation of nitrate uptake by regulating the expression of NRT2/NAR genes under limited nitrate supply, offering a new target for improvement of nitrate absorption in crops.

 

中文摘要(谷歌机翻译)

硝酸盐是大多数植物的首选氮素形式,既可作为营养物又可作为信号分子。然而,控制面包小麦(世界上最重要的农作物之一)中硝酸盐吸收的成分和调控因素仍不清楚,这主要是由于其六倍体基因组的复杂性。

在此,根据最近发布的面包小麦全基因组信息,对高亲和力硝酸盐转运蛋白2(NRT2)和硝酸盐同化相关(NAR)基因家族进行了表征。我们表明,硝酸盐撤除后,硝酸盐再供应会刺激面包小麦根中的ABA-GE解偶联,从而导致根组织ABA积累增强,而这种增强反过来又会影响根型NRT2 / NAR基因的表达。显示TaANR1通过直接激活TaBG1来调节硝酸盐介导的ABA积累,而TaWabi5参与ABA介导的NRT2 / NAR基因的NO3-诱导。

基于先前的证据,证明ABA参与了对高硝酸盐胁迫的发育反应,我们的研究表明ABA还通过调节有限的硝酸盐供应下的NRT2 / NAR基因的表达来促进硝酸盐吸收的优化,为改良提供了新的目标作物中硝酸盐的吸收。

 

结果表明:不同处理下,小麦根系分生区、伸长区、成熟区NO3-流对比。

文章链接:http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/early/2020/01/14/pp.19.01482

 

 

《中国农业科学》根系局部NaCl处理对葡萄植株伤害度、Na+积累和碳氮分配的影响(根系钠流速)

转自中关村旭月非损伤微测技术产业联盟


期刊:中国农业科学
标题:根系局部NaCl处理对葡萄植株伤害度、Na+积累和碳氮分配的影响
检测指标:Na+
检测样品:葡萄根系
作者:山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院孙红、姚玉新

摘要

【目的】盐胁迫严重影响果树作物产量及品质。自然条件下,土壤中盐分浓度不均一,同一植株根系不同部位所处的盐环境不同。本文旨在测定根系局部盐处理对葡萄植株的伤害程度,并从Na+积累特性和碳氮分配角度揭示非处理侧根系缓解盐伤害的机理。

【方法】利用分根栽培控制根系盐环境,根系两侧NaCl浓度(mmol·L-1)设置为0/0、0/50、50/50、0/100、100/100 5种处理。通过测定叶绿素、丙二醛(MDA)和叶绿素荧光参数来反应植株伤害程度;通过测定Na+含量、离子流和根域介质电导率来检测Na+体内运转特性;通过测定氮肥利用率和碳氮分配率分析不同盐处理下各组织碳、氮水平。

【结果】处理15 d和30 d时,双侧均匀盐处理显著降低叶绿素含量,提高叶片和根系MDA水平;同浓度单侧盐处理能有效缓解叶绿素下降和MDA积累。Fv/Fm、ETR等叶绿素荧光参数测定表明了相似的结果。以上结果表明,单侧盐处理下,非处理侧根系能有效减轻盐对葡萄植株的伤害。处理15 d时,各种方式的NaCl处理均不同程度增加了根系和叶片Na+含量;尤其是在单侧盐处理下,非处理侧根系Na+含量显著增加;与同浓度双侧均匀盐处理相比,单侧盐处理显著降低了叶片Na+水平,100 mmol·L-1单侧盐处理显著降低了处理侧根系Na+浓度。非盐处理对照根系Na+流为内运;处理24 h时,双侧盐处理的根系外排Na+,100 mmol·L-1单侧盐处理下非处理侧根系Na+流转变为外运。此外,单侧盐处理下,非处理侧根系周围栽培介质电导率较对照显著提高。以上结果表明,处理侧根系吸收的Na+能从非处理侧根系排出体外,避免处理侧根系和叶片Na+大量积累。根系双侧NaCl处理显著降低了氮肥利用率,且与处理浓度有关;单侧盐处理能减缓氮肥利用率的下降,并且0/100 mmol·L-1处理下,非处理侧根系氮肥利用率较对照显著提高。双侧盐处理尤其是100 mmol·L-1重度盐胁迫不利于氮向叶片和根中分配,而促进了氮向多年生蔓中分配,利于氮的储存。而单侧盐处理降低了多年生蔓中氮的储藏,同时缓解了叶片和根系中氮分配率的下降。双侧盐处理降低了叶片和根中碳分配率,单侧盐处理能缓解叶片碳分配率的下降,提高盐处理下根系碳分配率。50和100 mmol·L-1盐处理对一年生蔓和多年生蔓碳的分配率具有不同的影响,50 mmol·L-1单、双侧盐处理提高了多年生蔓的碳分配率,而100 mmol·L-1单、双侧处理降低了多年生蔓的碳分配率。

【结论】与均匀盐处理相比,同浓度单侧盐处理对葡萄植株的伤害程度较轻。盐处理侧根系吸收的Na+可运输到非处理侧根系,进而排出体外,降低叶片Na+积累水平。非处理侧根系能缓解盐胁迫导致的叶片和根系碳、氮分配率的下降。

文章链接:https://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=CJFQ&dbname=CJFDLAST2019&filename=ZNYK201907005&v=MTM3OTN5bm1VN3pQUHlQU1piRzRIOWpNcUk5RllZUjhlWDFMdXhZUzdEaDFUM3FUcldNMUZyQ1VSN3FmWnVabUY=

 

 

NMT历史上的今天丨Plant Cell Physiol:Ca2+流指示的微藻氮胁迫信号转导研究

转自中关村旭月非损伤微测技术产业联盟

NMT历史上的今天

2014年01月14日,中科院水生所王强、陈辉用NMT在Plant and Cell Physiology上发表了标题为Ca2+ Signal Transduction Related to Neutral Lipid Synthesis in an Oil-Producing Green Alga Chlorella sp. C2的研究成果。

 

  • 期刊:Plant and Cell Physiology
  • 主题:Ca2+流指示的微藻氮胁迫信号转导研究
  • 标题:Ca2+ Signal Transduction Related to Neutral Lipid Synthesis in an Oil-Producing Green Alga Chlorella sp. C2
  • 影响因子:4.134
  • 检测指标:Ca2+流速
  • 通讯作者:中科院水生所王强、陈辉

英文摘要

Changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ levels and the role of Ca2+ signal transduction in neutral lipid synthesis in Chlorella sp. C2 under nitrogen starvation conditions were investigated. The results detected by using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique demonstrate that nitrogen starvation induced significant Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane into cells.

Ca2+ fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry were used to estimate the effect of this Ca2+ influx on the generation of the Ca2+ signal, and the results showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration increased transiently and then remained at a stable, high level when the cells were exposed to nitrogen starvation. However, the increase could be inhibited by pre-treatment with the Ca2+ channel blockers ruthenium red, verapamil and GdCl3, indicating that both the influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space via Ca2+ channels that are localized in the plasma membrane and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium storage via the internal calcium store were required for the generation and transduction of the Ca2+ signal.

During nitrogen starvation, neutral lipid synthesis in Chlorella sp. C2 in response to stress conditions was also inhibited to differing degrees by pre-treatment with the three Ca2+ channel blockers, demonstrating the regulation of Ca2+ via these Ca2+ channels in neutral lipid synthesis.

The results suggested that by transduction of extracellular stress signals into the cell and the regulation of the Ca2+ signal in neutral lipid synthesis, Ca2+ signal transduction played important roles in the response mechanism of Chlorella sp. C2 to nitrogen starvation.

 

中文摘要(谷歌机翻)

小球藻中胞质Ca2+水平的变化以及Ca2+信号转导在中性脂质合成中的作用。研究了氮饥饿条件下的C2。通过使用扫描离子选择电极技术检测到的结果表明,氮饥饿导致大量Ca2+穿过质膜流入细胞。

Ca2+荧光成像和流式细胞仪用于评估这种Ca2+内流对Ca2+信号生成的影响,结果表明,当细胞暴露于细胞中时,胞浆中Ca2+的浓度会瞬时增加,然后保持稳定的高水平。氮饥饿。但是,通过用Ca2+通道阻滞剂钌红,维拉帕米和GdCl3进行预处理可以抑制这种增加,这表明Ca2+经由位于质膜上的Ca2+通道从细胞外空间大量涌入以及Ca2+的释放。Ca2+信号的产生和转导需要通过内部钙储存器进行细胞内钙储存。

在氮饥饿期间,小球藻中的中性脂质合成。通过使用三种Ca2+通道阻滞剂的预处理,C2对应激条件的响应也受到了不同程度的抑制,这表明在中性脂质合成中通过这些Ca2+通道对Ca2+的调节。

结果表明,通过将细胞外应激信号转导到细胞中以及中性脂质合成中Ca2+信号的调节,Ca2+信号转导在小球藻的反应机制中发挥了重要作用。C2导致氮饥饿。

Fig. 1 The total Ca2+ flux rates over 5 min in Chlorella sp. C2 under N starvation. (a) Microphotographic examples of Ca2+ ion flux/voltage-clamp measurements. (b) Total flux rates of Ca2+ were detected at 0, 0.5, 2 and 8 d after N starvation. The columns represent the means of three replicated studies in each sample, with the SD of the means (t-test, P < 0.05). The significance of the differences between the control (0 d) and other test values was tested using a one-way analysis of variance. *P < 0.05 vs. control.

文章链接:https://academic.oup.com/pcp/article/55/3/634/1939753

 

 

NMT历史上的今天丨Front Plant Sci:Paxillus involutus促进Cd2+吸收机制

转自中关村旭月非损伤微测技术产业联盟

NMT历史上的今天

2017年01月06日,北京林业大学陈少良、张玉红用NMT在Frontiers in Plant Science上发表了标题为Paxillus involutus-Facilitated Cd2+ Influx through Plasma Membrane Ca2+-Permeable Channels Is Stimulated by H2O2 and H+-ATPase in Ectomycorrhizal Populus × canescens under Cadmium Stress的研究成果。

 

  • 期刊:Frontiers in Plant Science
  • 主题:Paxillus involutus促进Cd2+吸收机制
  • 标题:Paxillus involutus-Facilitated Cd2+ Influx through Plasma Membrane Ca2+-Permeable Channels Is Stimulated by H2O2 and H+-ATPase in Ectomycorrhizal Populus × canescens under Cadmium Stress
  • 影响因子:4.495
  • 检测指标:H+、Ca2+、Cd2+、H2O2流速
  • 通讯作者:北京林业大学陈少良、张玉红

英文摘要

Using a Non-invasive Micro-test Technique, flux profiles of Cd2+, Ca2+, and H+ were investigated in axenically grown cultures of two strains of Paxillus involutus (MAJ and NAU), ectomycorrhizae formed by these fungi with the woody Cd2+-hyperaccumulator, Populus × canescens, and non-mycorrhizal (NM) roots.

The influx of Cd2+ increased in fungal mycelia, NM and ectomycorrhizal (EM) roots upon a 40-min shock, after short-term (ST, 24 h), or long-term (LT, 7 days) exposure to a hydroponic environment of 50 μM CdCl2. Cd2+ treatments (shock, ST, and LT) decreased Ca2+ influx in NM and EM roots but led to an enhanced influx of Ca2+ in axenically grown EM cultures of the two P. involutus isolates.

The susceptibility of Cd2+ flux to typical Ca2+ channel blockers (LaCl3, GdCl3, verapamil, and TEA) in fungal mycelia and poplar roots indicated that the Cd2+ entry occurred mainly through Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane (PM). Cd2+ treatment resulted in H2O2 production. H2O2 exposure accelerated the entry of Cd2+ and Ca2+ in NM and EM roots. Cd2+ further stimulated H+ pumping activity benefiting NM and EM roots to maintain an acidic environment, which favored the entry of Cd2+ across the PM.

A scavenger of reactive oxygen species, DMTU, and an inhibitor of PM H+-ATPase, orthovanadate, decreased Ca2+ and Cd2+ influx in NM and EM roots, suggesting that the entry of Cd2+ through Ca2+-permeable channels is stimulated by H2O2 and H+ pumps. Compared to NM roots, EM roots exhibited higher Cd2+-fluxes under shock, ST, and LT Cd2+ treatments.

We conclude that ectomycorrhizal P. × canescens roots retained a pronounced H2O2 production and a high H+-pumping activity, which activated PM Ca2+ channels and thus facilitated a high influx of Cd2+ under Cd2+ stress.

中文摘要(谷歌机翻)

使用非损伤微测技术,研究了两株渐渐出现的新孢子虫(MAJ和NAU)的无性培养中Cd2+,Ca2+和H+的通量分布,这是由这些真菌与木质的Cd2+-超蓄积剂,胡杨形成的外生菌根 ×canescens和非菌根(NM)根。

短期(ST,24 h)或长期(LT,7天)暴露于水培环境的40分钟休克后,真菌菌丝体,NM和根外菌根(EM)根中Cd2+的流入增加。50μM氯化镉。Cd2+处理(电击,ST和LT)减少了NM和EM根中的Ca2+流入,但导致了两个渐近线对虾分离株的无性生长EM培养物中Ca2+的流入增加。

Cd2+通量对真菌菌丝体和杨树根中典型的Ca2+通道阻滞剂(LaCl3,GdCl3,维拉帕米和TEA)的敏感性表明,Cd2+进入主要通过质膜(PM)中的Ca2+渗透通道发生。Cd2+处理导致产生H2O2。H2O2暴露加速了NM和EM根中Cd2+和Ca2+的进入。Cd2+进一步刺激了H+的泵送活性,有利于NM和EM根系维持酸性环境,这有利于Cd2+跨PM进入。

活性氧清除剂DMTU和PM H+ -ATPase的抑制剂原钒酸盐减少了NM和EM根中Ca2+和Cd2+的内流,这表明H2O2和H+泵刺激了Cd2+通过Ca2+渗透性通道的进入。与NM根相比,EM根在电击,ST和LT Cd2+处理下表现出更高的Cd2+通量。

我们得出的结论是,外生根茎假单胞菌根保留了明显的H2O2产生和高H+泵送活性,从而激活了PM Ca2+通道,从而促进了Cd2+胁迫下Cd2+的大量涌入。

FIGURE 1 | Effects of CdCl2 on transient kinetics of Cd2+, Ca2+, and H+ in Populus × canescens roots and Paxillus involutus strains MAJ and NAU. Cd2+ (A), Ca2+ (B), and H+ (C) kinetics were recorded before and after the required amount of 50 µM CdCl2 was introduced into the measuring chamber.

文章链接:https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.01975/full

 

 

盐胁迫综述:泌盐盐生植物泌盐腺研究进展

转自中关村旭月非损伤微测技术产业联盟


期刊:北方农业学报
标题:泌盐盐生植物泌盐腺研究进展
作者:内蒙古农业大学刘艳、王洋

摘要

泌盐腺是泌盐盐生植物特有的泌盐结构。泌盐盐生植物通过泌盐腺分泌盐离子适应盐碱环境。泌盐腺根据其形态、功能不同划分为盐腺、盐囊泡。文章结合前人研究结果,对泌盐腺的类型、形态结构、泌盐方式、泌盐机理等进行综述,旨在为了解和完善泌盐盐生植物泌盐特性和耐盐机制提供依据。

 

 

文章链接:http://kns.cnki.net/KCMS/detail/detail.aspx?dbcode=CJFQ&dbname=CJFDLAST2019&filename=NMGN201902004&v=MzAwMzRxVHJXTTFGckNVUkxPZllPWnVGeS9uVkwzQUt5RE1ZTEc0SDlqTXJZOUZZSVI4ZVgxTHV4WVM3RGgxVDM=